Fact About Pakistan -- Physical

Road Transport:

Road transport is the backbone of Pakistan’s transport system, accounting for 90 percent of national passenger traffic and 96 percent of freight movement. Over the past ten years, road traffic – both passenger and freight – has grown much faster than the country’s economic growth. The 10,849 km long National Highway and Motorway network contributes 4.2 percent of the total road network. They carry 90 percent of Pakistan’s total traffic.

Pakistan, with about 156 million people, has a reasonably developed transport system. However, when compared with other developed and developing countries, the road density of Pakistan is low. A commonly used indicator for development of the road system is road density (total length of road /total area), which is often used as an index of prosperity, economic activity and development. Pakistan intends to double its current road density of 0.31-km/sq. km to 0.64-km/sq. km gradually over the next 10 years.

Road Network:

Pakistan has a road network covering 259,197 kilometers including 172,827 KM of high type roads and 86,370 KM of low type roads. Total roads, which were 229,595 KM in 1996-97, increased to 259,197 KM by 2006-07― an increase of 13 percent. During the out-going fiscal year, the length of the high typed road network increased by 3.2 percent but the length of the low type road network declined by 5.6 percent. Extent of high type roads have increased by 37 percent since 1996-97. A sizable and continuous improvement of the high type road network can be observed from 2001 to 2007, where the network grew at an average rate of 3.3 percent. The continuous improvement and rehabilitation of the existing roads reflects the government’s enhanced focus on infrastructure. As a result of an emphasis on high type roads, many low typed roads were converted to high typed roads during this period. There are many ways by which availability of improved and wide spread modern road networks can facilitate economic activity. For example, they could help alleviate poverty by providing access to far flung rural areas, create more jobs by supporting economic activity along the network and provide numerous small-scale investment opportunities. In addition, introduction of Khushal Pakistan Program, has helped to rehabilitate and modernize rural road network along with implementation of wide ranging development activities through various district governments under the devolution program.


National Highway Authority (NHA):

The NHA is currently the custodian of nearly all of Pakistan's major inter-provincial road links called the national highways, including the motorways and strategic roads. These roads comprise only around 4 percent of Pakistan's total road network but carry 80 percent of the country’s commercial traffic. Consequently, the network is under pressure and its importance from a development perspective cannot be over emphasized. The present highway network is under strain by rising traffic flow and a slow pace of increase in capacity. Consolidation, preservation and improvement of the existing highways are needed on an urgent basis. Gradual extension of the network is also equally important to develop remote areas and to better connect major economic and social centers of Pakistan.

Length of Roads

(Kilometers)

Fiscal Year

High Type

Low Type #

Total

 

Length

%Change

Length

%Change

Length

% Change

1996-97

126,117

6.5

103,478

3.6

229,595

5.2

1997-98

133,462

5.8

107,423

3.8

240,885

4.9

1998-99

137,352

2.9

110,132

2.5

247,484

2.7

1999-2000

138,200

0.6

110,140

0

248,340

0.3

2000-01

144,652

4.7

105,320

-4.4

249,972

0.7

2001-02

148,877

2.9

102,784

-2.4

251,661

0.7

2002-03

153,225

2.9

98,943

-3.7

252,168

0.2

2003-04

158,543

3.5

97,527

-1.4

256,070

1.5

2004-05

162,841

2.7

95,373

-2.2

258,214

0.8

2005-06

167,530

2.9

91,491

-4.1

259,021

0.3

2006-07*

172,827

3.2

86,370

-5.6

259,197

0.1



Province Wise Break-up

Province

Km

% Share

Punjab

2475

22.81

Sindh

1604

14.78

KPK

1651

15.22

Balochistan

4177

38.50

NA/AJK

942

08.69

Total

10849

100%


Major Completed Road Projects

S. No.

Project

Length (KM)

Province

1.

Makran Costal Highway

634

Balochistan

2.

Nauttal-Sibi section including Sibi Bypass

86

Balochistan

3.

Dera Allah Yar-Nauttal Section

60

Balochistan

4.

Khajuri-Bewata Section N-70

68

Balochistan

5.

Kohat Tunnel and Access Roads

31

KPK

6.

Mansehra-Naran Section

124

KPK

7.

D.I.Khan-CRBC ( Indus Highway )

14

KPK

8.

Karachi Northern Bypass

57

Sindh

9.

Qazi Ahmed & Shahpur Jehania Road

102

Sindh



Major Completed Road Projects

S.No.

Project

Length (KM)

Province

10.

Ratodero-Shahdadkot-Qubo Saeed Khan

64

Sindh

11.

Pindi Bhattian-Faisalabad Motorway, M-3

52

Punjab

12.

Lahore-Sahiwal Section

40

Punjab

13.

Okara Bypass

13

Punjab

14.

Rahim Yar Khan-TMP Section

80

Punjab

15.

Baberlo-Pano Aqil Section

30

Sindh

16.

Rehabilitation of Bund Road Lahore

19

Punjab

17.

Torkham-Jalalabad Road .

75

Afghanistan


Major Ongoing Road Projects

 

 

S.No.

Project

Length (KM)

Province

1.

Gwadar-Turbat-Hoshab (M-8)

193

Balochistan

2.

Khuzdar-Shahdadkot Section

82

Balochistan

3.

Khanozai-Muslim Bagh Section

50

Balochistan

4.

Kalat-Quetta-Chaman Section

230

Balochistan

5.

Gawadar-Pleri Section

67

Balochistan

6.

Sibi-Dhadar Section

26

Balochistan

7.

Lakpass Tunnel

280 m

Balochistan

8.

Lyari Expressway

32

Sindh

9.

Lowari Rail Tunnel and access roads

27

K.P.K

10.

Naran-Jhalkhad-Chillas Section

40

K.P.K

11.

Dualization of Takht Bahi-Dargai Road

30

K.P.K

12.

D.I.Khan-Mughalkot Section

124

K.P.K

13.

Islamabad-Peshawar Motorway

152

K.P.K/Punjab

14.

Islamabad-Murree Dual Carriageway

43

Punjab

15.

R.Y.Khan-Bahawalpur Section

90

Punjab

Karachi Port Trust (KPT):

The steady and continuous progress made by KPT has helped boost the national economy. The KPT established an annual cargo handling record of over 32.3 million tonnes during 2005-06 showing a sizable growth of 12.8 percent over 2004-05. However, during the first nine months of the current fiscal year, the port handled a cargo volume of 22.4 million tonnes as compared to 24.6 million tonnes handled in the corresponding period last year registering a decline trend of 8.7 percent. This is mainly due to a fall in imports of fertilizer by 49 percent, sugar by 38 percent, iron scrap by 60 percent and crude oil by 16 percent which led to an overall decrease of import cargo by 12 percent during first nine month of current financial year. However, the volume of export increased by 4.1 percent during first nine months of current fiscal year.

The existing port facilities appear to be inadequate to handle the growing cargo at the port. In order to address these constraints, the KPT has launched a number of projects, which are at different stages of execution. A number of projects have been formulated for phased implementation on a BOT basis covering various activities in port operations.

The KPT has commissioned the project titled “Karachi Interval Container Terminal (KICT)”. The project is already operational at the west wharf and it has annual capacity of 350,000 twenty equal units (TEU). An additional $ 65 million was invested to enhance its capacity up to 525,000 TEU. The 3rd phase of the project was launched on March 7, 2005, with an investment of US$ 55 million to extend the capacity up to 700,000 TEU.

In addition, KPT has awarded a contract for a second container terminal on BOT basis with estimated cost of US$ 75 million. To ease transportation problem between the port and the factory, the KPT has pledged to contribute over Rs.2.8 billion for reconstruction of roads. As the new generation of container ships comes on board, KPT is taking initiatives to be able to cater to the even higher capacity fifth and sixth generation ships. This involves the development of 10 deep draught berths with the total cost of US $ 1,087 million.

Port Qasim:

Port Qasim is fast becoming a major contributor to national economy of Pakistan with an impressive growth in port operations. During 2005-06 cargo handled at the port increased by 10.8 percent from 21.3 million tonnes to 23.6 million with the increase of marine traffic by 8 percent. The cargo handling during July- March 2006-07 increased from 16.8 million tonnes to 19.7 million tonnes over the corresponding period last year. This is an increase of 17 percent which is higher than 14 percent increase recorded for the same period last year. During the last 3 years a marked improvement has also been witnessed in revenue growth. The revenue generation over the last five years was increased from Rs. 2 billion to Rs.3.4 billion. The PQA is currently pursuing a large number of projects for capacity enhancement and industrialization, attracting foreign direct investment (FDI) and simultaneously undertaking major infrastructure development to enhance its efficiency. The port has already attracted US $ 1.5 billion of FDI.

Gwadar Port:

The Gwadar port was inaugurated on 20th March 2007. Gwadar, a district of Balochistan enjoys a strategic position on the coastline of Pakistan. Balochistan in general and Gwadar in particular has been neglected in the past but its 600 km long coastline has been brought to the lime-light by the present government which is determined to develop this Port into one of the most modern Ports in the world. This port would be an integral component of the trade corridor for Central Asian states, China and the Gulf as 60 percent trade of oil and gas is done through this route. A deep sea port like Gwadar is already attracting global attention, and once it is fully developed with all supporting facilities required to handle trans-shipment and trade, Gwadar will become one of the important gateways to prosperity for the people of Pakistan in general and Balochistan in particular. Gwadar could spur economic progress throughout the region by reducing the transport time between China, Middle East, Central Asian States, Europe and Africa. Some experts even estimate that Pakistan could earn up to US $ 60 billion per annum out of transit trade when Gwadar Port and the National Trade Corridor are fully developed and operational. The operation and management of the port was recently handed over to the Singapore Port Authority (SPA) under a 40 year agreement between the Gwadar Port Authority (GPA) and the Concession Holding Company (CHC) a subsidiary of the GPA that is operating 22 ports in 11 countries. The company will invest $ 550 million in next five years. The port will not only promote trade and transport with Gulf States, but will also provide transshipment of containerized cargo, unlock the development potential of hinterland and will become a regional hub for major trade and commercial activities.

Future Outlook:

National Trade Corridor: In order to create a growth-facilitating infrastructure a major initiative namely the “National Trade Corridor” has been launched, to revamp the whole transport sector including ports, roads, railway, aviation etc. A framework to develop and improve the North South Corridor has been incorporated in it. The framework takes a holistic and integrated approach to reduce the cost of doing business in Pakistan by improving the trade and transport logistics chain and bringing it up to international standards. The initiative is in line with Medium Term Development Framework (MTDF). The government’s strategy to establish a multi-modal transport system is based on emphasis on asset management with consolidation, up gradation, rehabilitation and maintenance of the existing system; enhanced private sector participation in transport and use of modern technology to increase sector efficiency. The strategy aimed at enhancing regional connectivity to improve links to the Central Asian States, Iran, Afghanistan and India. With the development of the North-South and East West trade links, energy and industrial corridors with China, Central Asian Republics, Afghanistan and Iran would also be developed. Basic theme of the National Trade Corridor Improvement Program is “Decreasing the cost of doing business through improvements in the trade logistics”. Basic thrust would be to get results through short term / long term measures. In the short term, quick results would be achieved with small investments through policy interventions, systematic & procedural improvements, reducing costs & time and eliminating red-tapism. Long term measures include higher investments on infrastructure, deep-rooted institutional reforms to ensure sustainability and conducive environment for pragmatic investment by the private sector. An efficient and well-integrated transport system facilitates the development of a competitive economy and creates vast opportunities to reduce poverty. It also ensures safety in mobility and augment regional connectivity. All these efforts are expected to help increase Pakistan’s exports from US$ 17 billion in 2006 to around US$ 250 billion by 2030. This program would not only target the trade facilitation and infrastructure development, but also will serve for developing an energy and Industry corridor in future. Pakistan can establish exclusive industrial zones for Chinese and other Central Asian entrepreneurs near the industrial cities of Karachi, Lahore, Faisalabad and Peshawar. The NTC will also boost the emerging trade and business status of the Gwadar Port
Shipping

The mercantile scenario of Pakistan has faced difficulties in the past. The shipping industry in the private sector had a setback in 1974 due to nationalization. Thus a healthy competition in shipping between public and private sector ended. The traditional ship owners disappeared from the scene. Now the Government has introduced a Policy to boost private investment in the shipping sector by giving a host of incentives.

Shipping is a capital intensive industry and the Government alone cannot meet this sector’s requirements because of financial constraints and other development priorities. Considering this aspect, a number of incentives have been offered to encourage the participation of the private sector. A Merchant Shipping Policy has been formulated with the guidance and inputs of public and private sector experts and professionals as well as other stakeholders. The basic aim of this policy is to attract investment in this vital field through a predictable environment, and offering concrete incentives, assurances, easy rules, regulations and procedures. The previous policies did not cater for any incentives in the field of shipping. The new Shipping Policy would improve access to international markets by encouraging an efficient flow of foreign trade. The element of specific restrictions is applicable only on Government owned cargo which is to be transported by the National carrier as it falls under the UNCTAD Code of Conduct of 40 per cent trade which can be lifted by the National carriers.

Pakistan’s present ports i.e. Karachi Port, Port Qasim and Gwadar Port are easily accessible and have all port facilities for handling international cargo. Tankers up to 12 meters draft and other vessels between 10.5 to 11.5 meters can be berthed at other berths. Port Bin Qasim can berth ships with drafts between 11 to 11.5 meters. Additional facilities in the form of shipyard, dry-docking repairs and others are extensively available. In order to encourage private sector investment in shipping, 48 ship owning licenses have been issued to parties interested in owning and operating shipping companies under Pakistani flag.

Pakistan has offered no specific commitment on Maritime Transport in International Shipping, Auxiliary Services, Port service or others. Pakistan has also not offered MFN Exemption in Maritime Transport Services. Pakistan is focusing on bringing in quantitative and qualitative improvement in all spheres with the objectives to attract and facilitate private sector investment, deregulation for providing free environment, and ensuring efficient operation of the country ports. Though Pakistan has not been an active participant in maritime services negotiations, it has provided a liberal environment to foreign carriers. Only 5 per cent services are carried by domestic carries and 95 per cent by foreign carriers. Presently Pakistan is adopting a liberal policy of a predictable environment through incentives including duty exemptions, concessions, tax measures, fixed tax rates, simplified rules and procedures and assurances to provide a friendly environment. By attracting foreign investment, this sector will be able to meet domestic requirement and run cost efficiently.

Pakistan National Shipping Corporation (PNSC):

PNSC manages 15 vessels with a total capacity of 636,182 dwt. The existing fleet consist of 10 multipurpose cargo vessels, 4 Aframax crude oil tankers and one Panamax bulk carrier vessel which were acquired through PNSC’s own resources. The four Aframax oil tankers are participating in national and regional crude oil trade. PNSC has carried crude oil cargoes for India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. During first nine months of the current fiscal year, the PNSC has lifted 5.4 million tonnes of liquid cargo and 1.0 million tonne of dry cargo. The Corporation is continuing with its efforts to add more vessels at a total cost of about US$ 150 million out of which US$ 135 million is being arranged through foreign financing.
There are 53 airports in Pakistan. The largest airport in Pakistan is the Jinnah International Airport, Karachi that can handle 30 aircraft at a time and has 16 passenger gates. It handles 6 million passengers annually and has a capacity of handling 12 million passengers annually. In addition, the international airports at Lahore, Islamabad, Peshawar and Quetta are also major Pakistani airports catering to a majority of the local and international travelers.


List of Airports in Pakistan

 

 


CITY

AIRPORT NAME

Usage

Runway (ft)

1

Bahawalpur

Bahawalpur Airport

Public

9,345

2

Bannu

Bannu Airport

Public

6,005

3

Chandhar

Chandhar Airbase

Military

9,000

4

Chashma

Chashma Airport

Public

3,500

5

Chilas

Chilas Airport

Public

4,500

6

Chitral

Chitral Airport

Public

5,741

7

Dalbandin

Dalbandin Airport

Public

5,000

8

Dera Ghazi Khan

Dera Ghazi Khan Airport

Public

6,499

9

Dera Ismail Khan

Dera Ismail Khan Airport

Public

5,000

10

Faisalabad

Faisalabad International Airport

Public

9,272

11

Gilgit

Gilgit Airport

Public

5,400

12

Gwadar

Gwadar International Airport

Public

4,960

13

Hyderabad

Hyderabad Airport

Public

 

14

Islamabad

Islamabad International Airport/Chaklala Airbase

Public/Military

10,758

15

Jacobabad

Jacobabad Airbase

Military

10,081

16

Jiwani

Jiwani Airport

Public

5,332

17

Kadanwari

Kadanwari Airport

Public

 

18

Karachi

Masroor Airbase

Military

9,022

19

Karachi

Jinah International Airport

Public

11,155

20

Khuzdar

Khuzdar Airport

Public

6,001

21

Kohat

Kohat Airbase

Military

7,717

22

Lahore

Allama Iqbal International Airport

Public

11,024

23

Lahore

Walton Airport

Public

4,390

24

Larkana

Moenjodaro Airport

Public

 ?

25

Mangla

Mangla Airport

Public

5,000

26

Mianwali

Mianwali Airbase

Military

10,348

27

Mohenjo-daro

Moenjodaro Airport

Public

6,512

28

Multan

Multan International Airport

Public

9,046

29

Murid

Murid Airbase

Military

8,940

30

Muzaffarabad

Muzaffarabad Airport

Public

2,960

31

Nawabshah

Nawabshah Airport

Public

8,999

32

Ormara

Ormara Airport

Public

4,995

33

Panjgur

Panjgur Airport

Public

5,000

34

Parachinar

Parachinar Airport

Public

3,999

35

Pasni City

Pasni Airport

Public

8,999

36

Peshawar

Peshawar International Airport

Public

9,000

37

Qasim

Dhamial Army Airbase

Military

6,693

38

Quetta

Quetta International Airport

Public

12,000

39

Rafiqi

Shorkot Road Airbase

Military

10,000

40

Rahimyar Khan

Shaikh Zayed International Airport

Public

9,842

41

Rawalakot

Rawalakot Airport

Public

2,598

42

Sialkot

Sialkot International Airport

Public

11,811

43

Saidu Sharif

Saidu Sharif Airport

Public

5,475

44

Sargodha

Sargodha Airbase

Military

10,253

45

Sehwan Sharif

Sehwan Sharif Airport

Public

 

46

Sibi

Sibi Airport

Public

 

47

Sindhri Tharparkar

Sindhri Airport

Public

 

48

Skardu

Skardu Airport

Military/Public

11,944

49

Sui

Sui Airport

Public

6,000

50

Sukkur

Sukkur Airport

Public

9,000

51

Tarbela Dam

Tarbela Dam Airport

Public

5,600

52

Turbat

Turbat Airport

Public

6,000

53

Zhob

Zhob Airport

Public

6,001



Railways:


A well functioning railway system is crucial for sustainable economic growth. Railways have a definite edge over roads for long haul and mass scale traffic movement, both for passenger and freight, as a safe, economical and environment friendly mode of transport. It not only contributes to economic growth but also promotes national integration. Pakistan Railways was the primary mode of transportation in the country till seventies. However, due to diversion of resources to expansion of road network, the performance of Pakistan Railway declined and it’s share of inland traffic reduced from 41 percent to 10 percent for passenger and 73 percent to 4 percent for freight traffic. During the last seven years (2000-2007), Pakistan Railways has shown improving trend in both passenger and freight traffic, registering an average increase of 5.6 percent and 8.0 percent per annum, respectively. A positive growth of 5.7 percent and 6.9 percent has been recorded in passenger traffic and freight traffic, respectively during 2005-06. Further, the passenger and freight carried by railways increased by 6.3 percent and 7.0 percent respectively during July-March 2006-07. The positive growth trend for seven consecutive years (2000-2007) can be attributed to the wide range of improvements made by the Pakistan Railways through completion of a number of development projects and better policies aimed at modernization of PR. Pakistan Railways has introduced 9 new train services in Transport and Communications in order to facilitate passengers as well as freight In order to continue improvements and to consolidate reforms, Pakistan Railways has prepared a business plan for 2005-11. The plan places emphasis on encouraging private sector participation in order to increase its competitiveness, responsiveness and efficiency. Pakistan Railway is planning to take a series of interlinked initiatives, which will enable it to compete efficiently in the fast growing transport sector in Pakistan.

Pakistan has awarded a contract to an international consortium to carry out a feasibility study for establishing a rail link with China. A rail link could further boost trade relations between the two countries by facilitating the already growing trade with China and operations of Gwadar Sea Port.

New Trains:


1 - Thar Express Karachi-Zero Point 18-02-2006
2 - Margala Express Lahore-Rawalpindi 22-05-2006
3 - Marvi Express Mirpurkhas-Khokhropar 07-06-2006
4 - Sindh Express Lahore-Karachi 24-07-2006
5 - Buraq Express Rawalpindi-Karachi 14-08-2006
6 - Peshawar Express Peshawar-Rawalpindi 15-12-2006
7 - Pakistan Express Rawalpindi-Karachi (Via Hafizabad, Faisalabad and Multan16-12-2006
8 - Jinnah Express Karachi-Rawalpindi. 08-01-2007
9 - Sir Syed Express Rawalpindi-Karachi 08-03-2007

An amount of Rs. 10.42 billion was allocated to PR development for the financial year 2006-07. The major development schemes under taken were Track Renewal of 221 KM of Rails and 455 KMs of sleepers for the planned main line from Karachi- Khanpur. Twenty locomotives in CKD condition were imported from China, out of which 10 locomotives were manufactured in Pakistan Locomotive Factory. The rehabilitation program for old locomotives will be continued.

Economic
Indicators

Economy Profile

Pakistan, an impoverished and underdeveloped country, has suffered from decades of internal political disputes and low levels of foreign investment. Between 2001-07, however, poverty levels decreased by 10%, as Islamabad steadily raised

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