Fact About Pakistan -- Country Profile

Background:
The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world and dating back at least 5,000 years, spread over much of what is presently Pakistan . During the second millennium B.C., remnants of this culture fused with the migrating Indo-Aryan peoples. The area underwent successive invasions in subsequent centuries from the Persians, Greeks, Scythians, Arabs (who brought Islam), Afghans, and Turks. The Mughal (Mongol) Empire flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries; the British came to dominate the region in the 18th century. The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with two sections West and East) and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved, and India and Pakistan fought two wars - in 1947-48 and 1965 - over the disputed Kashmir territory. A third war between these countries in 1971 - in which India capitalized on Islamabad's marginalization of Bengalis in Pakistani politics - resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh . In response to Indian nuclear weapons testing, Pakistan conducted its own tests in 1998. The dispute over the state of Kashmir is ongoing, but discussions and confidence-building measures have led to decreased tensions since 2002.

Environment - current issues:

Water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural fresh water resources; a majority of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:
Controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent

Age structure:
0-14 years: 36.9% (male 31,264,576/female 29,507,174)
15-64 years: 58.8% (male 49,592,033/female 47,327,161)
65 years and over: 4.3% (male 3,342,650/female 3,708,330) (2007 est.)

Population growth rate:
1.828% (2007 est.)

Birth rate:
27.52 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Religions:
Muslim 97% (Sunni 77%, Shi'a 20%), other (includes Christian and Hindu) 3%

Languages:
Punjabi 48%, Sindhi 12%, Siraiki (a Punjabi variant) 10%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu (official) 8%, Balochi 3%, Hindko 2%, Brahui 1%, English (official; lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries), Burushaski and other 8%

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 49.9%
male: 63%
female: 36% (2005 est.)

Government type:
Federal republic

Geographic coordinates:
33 42 N, 73 10 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington , DC during Standard Time)

 

Administrative divisions:
4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas*, Islamabad Capital Territory **, North-West Frontier Province, Punjab, Sindh
note: the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region consists of two administrative entities: Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas

Constitution:
12 April 1973; suspended 5 July 1977, restored with amendments 30 December 1985; suspended 15 October 1999, restored in stages in 2002; amended 31 December 2003 Legal system:
Based on English common law with provisions to accommodate Pakistan 's status as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

Flag description:
Green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam

Economic
Indicators

Economy Profile

Pakistan, an impoverished and underdeveloped country, has suffered from decades of internal political disputes and low levels of foreign investment. Between 2001-07, however, poverty levels decreased by 10%, as Islamabad steadily raised

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Contact Us

Infrastructure Project Development Facility (IPDF) # 611, Street 37, Sector E-11/3, Islamabad, 44000, Pakistan.
Telephone: +92 51 9334126, 9334130
FAX: + 92 51 9334129
Website: ipdf.gov.pk
E-mail: info@ipdf.gov.pk